New York State Medical Treatment Guidelines for Epididymo-Orchitis in workers compensation patients

The guidelines established by the New York State Workers Compensation Board are crafted to assist healthcare professionals in evaluating Epididymo-Orchitis. These directives aim to support physicians and healthcare practitioners in determining the appropriate treatment for this condition.

Healthcare professionals specializing in Epididymo-Orchitis can rely on the guidance provided by the Workers Compensation Board to make well-informed decisions about the most suitable level of care for their patients.

It is important to stress that these guidelines are not meant to replace clinical judgment or professional expertise. The ultimate decision regarding care should involve collaboration between the patient and their healthcare provider.


The majority of cases involving epididymitis or combined epididymitoorchitis are attributed to infectious causes. However, there exists a small yet noteworthy subset of patients who attribute their symptoms to a history of heavy lifting or strain, indicating the possibility that this condition may occasionally be linked to occupational disease or injury, beyond the typical scenario of direct work-related trauma.

Individuals with symptoms persisting without resolution should undergo evaluation by a urologist. Assessment should encompass considerations for testicular torsion (a surgical emergency), tumors, and genitourinary infections. Those exhibiting indications of any of these conditions should be referred to a primary health care provider or urologist.



In the primary prescription, ibuprofen, naproxen, or other NSAIDs from previous generations are suggested for the majority of patients. Acetaminophen (or its equivalent, paracetamol) could serve as a viable substitute for those ineligible for NSAIDs, although prevailing evidence indicates it is slightly less effective. Studies suggest that NSAIDs provide pain relief comparable to opioids (including tramadol) but with fewer associated impairments.


Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

In the context of epididymo-orchitis treatment, it is advised to use NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, naproxen, or similar options. Over-the-counter alternatives can be attempted initially. The frequency of use can be adjusted based on individual needs. Discontinuation may be appropriate upon the resolution of epididymo-orchitis, if there is insufficient effectiveness, or if adverse effects arise.


NSAIDs for Patients at High Risk of Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

For individuals at a heightened risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, it is advisable to concurrently use protective medications like misoprostol, sucralfate, histamine Type 2 receptor blockers, and proton pump inhibitors alongside NSAIDs. This approach is particularly relevant for patients with a high-risk profile who also require NSAIDs, especially if considering prolonged treatment. Those at risk include individuals with a history of previous gastrointestinal bleeding, the elderly, diabetics, and smokers.

Recommended protective medications include proton pump inhibitors, misoprostol, sucralfate, and H2 blockers, adhering to manufacturer-recommended doses and frequencies. Generally, there is no substantial belief in differences in efficacy for preventing gastrointestinal bleeding. Discontinuation should be considered in cases of intolerance, adverse effects, or when NSAID use is discontinued.


NSAIDs for Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Adverse Effects

Patients with established cardiovascular disease or multiple risk factors for cardiovascular issues should engage in a discussion about the potential risks and benefits associated with NSAID therapy for pain.

Recommendation: Acetaminophen or aspirin is suggested as the primary therapy, as they appear to be the safest regarding cardiovascular adverse effects.

Recommendation: If necessary, non-selective NSAIDs are preferred over COX-2 specific drugs. For patients concurrently using low-dose aspirin for primary or secondary cardiovascular disease prevention, it is recommended to take the NSAID at least 30 minutes after or eight hours before the daily aspirin to minimize the potential counteraction of the beneficial effects of aspirin.



Recommendation: Acetaminophen is recommended for the treatment of epididymo-orchitis, especially in patients with contraindications for NSAIDs.

Indications: Applicable to all patients experiencing epididymo-orchitis pain, including acute, subacute, chronic, and post-operative cases.

Dose/Frequency: Administer according to the manufacturer’s recommendations; may be used on an as-needed basis. Caution is advised, as evidence suggests hepatic toxicity when exceeding four gm/day.

Indications for Discontinuation: Discontinue when the pain resolves, adverse effects arise, or if intolerance is observed.




Not Recommended: Rehabilitation is not advised for the treatment of epididymo-orchitis.


Bed Rest

Not Recommended: Bed rest is not recommended for the treatment of epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis.


Ice or Intermittent Elevation

Not Recommended: The use of ice or intermittent elevation is not recommended for the treatment of epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis.



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